Cloud Computing

The Technology advancement in Computer and communication have change the lifestyle of individual and working style of organizations. There are some emerging technologies which are further changing working style of business organization and helping individuals to achieve more from technology innovations. Among them one of the key technology changes happening around the world is cloud computing.

Cloud computing definition : it is a technique which allows business organization to outsource the IT related services to organizations who know these technologies management in the best possible manner.

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Note:-Cloud is a collection of services, applications, database, documents, agreements, spreadsheet, storage capacity etc. which allow organization to share these resources from anywhere.

Cloud services Cloud services allow individuals and business to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties like google, Microsoft, amazon, etc.

Example of cloud services :- online file storage, social networking site, webmail and online business application.

A cloud is normally setup by big information technology company such as

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Cloud Computing environment:- the cloud computing environment consists of multiple types of cloud based on their deployment and use.

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1. Private Cloud:

a- This cloud computing environment resides within the boundaries of an organization and is used exclusively for the organization’s benefits.

b- These are also called Internal Clouds or Corporate Clouds.

c- Private Clouds can either be private to the organization and managed by the single organization (On-Premise Private Cloud) or can be managed by third party (Outsourced Private Cloud).

d- They are built primarily by IT departments within enterprises, who seek to optimize utilization of infrastructure resources within the enterprise by provisioning the infrastructure with applications using the concepts of grid and virtualization.

Characteristics of Private Cloud are as follows:

I Secure: The private cloud is secure as it is deployed and managed by the organization itself, and hence there is least chance of data being leaked out of the cloud.

II Central Control: As usual, the private cloud is managed by the organization itself, there is no need for the organization to rely on anybody and its controlled by the organization itself.

III Weak Service Level Agreements (SLAs): SLAs play a very important role in any cloud service deployment model as they are defined as agreements between the user and the service provider in private cloud. In private cloud, either Formal SLAs do not exist or are weak as it is between the organization and user of the same organization. Thus, high availability and good service may or may not be available.

Advantages of Private Cloud

a- Budget is constraint in private cloud– allow usage of low cost software and hardware. b- It provides a high level of security and privacy to the user.

c- It is small in size and controlled and maintained by the organization.

d- Building and managing cloud independently- as I T teams in the organization have to invest in buying and building the clou

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2. Public Cloud:

The public cloud is the cloud infrastructure that is a- Provisioned for open use by the general public.

b- It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organizations, or some combination of them.

c- Typically, public clouds are administrated by third parties or vendors over the Internet, and the services are offered on pay-per-use basis.

d- These are also called Provider Clouds. user can simply purchase resources on an hourly basis and work with the resources which are available in the cloud provider’s premises.

Characteristics of Public Cloud are as follows:

a- Highly Scalable: The resources in the public cloud are large in number and the service providers make sure that all requests are granted. Hence public clouds are considered to be scalable.

b- Affordable: The cloud is offered to the public on a pay-as-you-go basis; hence the user has to pay only for what he or she is using (using on a per-hour basis). And this does not involve any cost related to the deployment.

c- Less Secure: Since it is offered by a third party and they have full control over the cloud, the public cloud is less secure out of the other entire deployment model.

d- Highly Available: It is highly available because anybody from any part of the world can access the public cloud with proper permission.

e- Stringent SLAs: As the service provider’s business reputation and customer strength are totally dependent on the cloud services, they follow the SLAs strictly and violations are avoided.

The Advantages of Public Cloud include the following:

i- It is widely used in the development, deployment and management of enterprise applications, at affordable costs.

ii- It allows the organizations to deliver highly scalable and reliable applications rapidly and at more affordable costs.

iii- There is no need for establishing infrastructure for setting up and maintaining the cloud. iv- Strict SLAs are followed.

v- There is no limit for the number of users.

Limitation:-building trust among the clients is far from desired but slowly liable to happen. Further, privacy and organizational autonomy are not possible.

3. Hybrid Cloud:

a- combination of both at least one private (internal) and at least one public (external) cloud computing environments

b- The usual method of using the hybrid cloud is to have a private cloud initially, and then for additional resources, the public cloud is used.

c- aims at utilizing the power of the public cloud by retaining the properties of the private cloud.

d- It is typically offered in either of two ways.

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Characteristics of Hybrid Cloud are as follows:

a- Scalable: The hybrid cloud has the property of public cloud with a private cloud environment and as the public cloud is scalable; the hybrid cloud with the help of its public counterpart is also scalable.

b- Partially Secure: The private cloud is considered as secured and public cloud has high risk of security breach. The hybrid cloud thus cannot be fully termed as secure but as partially secure.

c- Stringent SLAs: Overall the SLAs are more stringent than the private cloud and might be as per the public cloud service providers.

d- Complex Cloud Management: it involves more than one type of deployment models and also the number of users is high.

The Advantages of Hybrid Cloud include the following:

a- It is highly scalable and gives the power of both private and public clouds. b- It provides better security than the public cloud.

c- The limitation of Hybrid Cloud is that the security features are not as good as the public cloud and complex to manage.

4. Community Cloud:

1- provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (eg. mission security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations).

2- It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

3- In this, a private cloud is shared between several organizations.

4- This model is suitable for organizations that cannot afford a private cloud and cannot rely on the public cloud either.

Characteristics of Community Clouds are as follows:

a- Collaborative and Distributive Maintenance: In this, no single company has full control over the whole cloud. This is usually distributive and hence better cooperation provides better results.

b- Partially Secure: This refers to the property of the community cloud where few organizations share the cloud, so there is a possibility that the data can be leaked from one organization to another, though it is safe from the external world.

c- Cost Effective: As the complete cloud is being shared by several organizations or community, not only the responsibility gets shared; the community cloud becomes cost effective too.

Advantages of Community Clouds are as follows:

i- It allows establishing a low-cost private cloud. ii- It allows collaborative work on the cloud.

iii- It allows sharing of responsibilities among the organizations. iv- It has better security than the public cloud.

Limitation of the community cloud is that the autonomy of the organization is lost and some of the security features are not as good as the private cloud. It is not suitable in the cases where there is no


CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE:- describes how cloud components are structured to provide cloud services. Cloud computing architecture used in the delivery of cloud computing. Cloud Computing system can be divided in 2 sections :-

1. Front end:-is the interface for the user.

2. Back end:- is the cloud section for the whole system.

1. Front End :-

a- it comprise of clients device ( such as laptop, pad, smart-phone, personal computer etc.) and some applications needed for accessing the cloud computing system.

b- Cloud computing systems do not give same interface.

c- Web services- like electronic mail use existing web browsers like firefox , Microsoft internet etc.

d- Other system has some unique application and interface which provides the network access to its client.

2. Back End :- is cloud itself

a- It consists of various machines, data storage, system and servers. b- Usually every application have dedicated server for service.

c- It monitors clients demand as well as traffic to ensure that system runs without problem. d- Some protocol followed by this server.

e- Server also uses software called middleware to help computers on network to communicate with each other.


a- Easy access to information:-

i- once registered- access information from anywhere through internet. ii- Beyond time zone & geographical location issue.

b- Cost efficiency:

i- Most cost efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade

ii- One- time-payment or pay –as- you- go & other scalable options. c- Backup and recovery:

i- Easier than physical device

ii- Cloud Service providers are competent to handle recovery.


i- Entire system fully functional in few minutes

ii- Time taken depend on kind of technology needed for business.

e- Unlimited Storage:

i- Storing information in cloud- unlimited storage

ii- No worry- running out of space or increase current space availability

f- Automatic Software integration:-

i- software integration occurs automatically

ii- no effort to customize & integrate applications as per preference.


a- Virtualisation ( आभास) : it allows sharing of multiple servers on fly i.e. servers and storage devices share and utilize applications, by easy migration from one physical location to another.

b- Performance (प्रदर्शन):provides high performance services using multiple clouds and web services interface like browsers

c- Agility (फुर्ती) : works in distributed mode and environment. It shares resources among users and tasks improving efficiency.

d- High availability and reliability: availability of server is supposed to be high and more reliable

e- High Scalability:- (बढाना): servicing of business requirement for large audience through high scalability.

f- Multi sharing :- works in distributed and shared mode , multiple user can work more efficiently with cost reduction

g- Maintenance:– can be access from any where not installed on each computer.

Cloud computing opportunities and challenges

there are some issues and challenges for managing cloud computing system:-

1- Confidentiality:- Cloud works on public network, there is a requirement to keep data confidential.

2- Integrity:– Data should not be tampered after it has once moved to cloud.

3- Availability:- Prevention of unauthorized withholding of data and ensure backup through Business Continuity Policy, and Disaster Recovery Planning.

4- Governance:– There is a need of some policies, privacy and security, policies which control standards, procedures and policies of organization.

5- Trust:– ensure that service arrangements have sufficient means to manage security and privacy controls employed by service provider.

6- Legal Compliance:– Legal, Privacy and data security laws need to be studied in cloud.

7- Privacy:– embedded in each phase of cloud design to decrease privacy risk.

8- Data Stealing:-data stealing and data loss issue arises when using server of other service provider by service provider.

9- Application Security:– in cloud computing application for data processing are stored where cloud is accessible by large number of user.

10- Software isolation:- in cloud some software is used by different organizations or users. Thus software isolation to protect user from each other is also an issue.

11- Cloud Architecture:– Security and privacy of data also depends upon architecture of cloud.

12- Incidence Response:- The Cloud Service provider should have infrastructure to meet organization’s requirement during incident.

13- Audit:-Cloud application security should be stronger than the one built in organization individual software and application . Audit of cloud computing model is always challenging as this requires understanding and implementing virtualization.

14- Identity Management and access control:- Cloud Service Provider would like to use their own rules of identity management and access control i.e. user id, password and authorization rules.

By Nandini Mishra


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